Group of organs that produces and transports urine through and out of the body. It includes two kidneys, two ureters, the bladder and the urethra. The urinary tract is similar in men and women, only men have a longer urethra.
A doctor specialized in health and diseases of the urinary tract and the genitals.
Kidneys are two bean-shaped organs in the back of the abdomen that filter the blood and produce urine.
One of the two tubes through which urine flows from the kidneys to the bladder.
The urinary bladder (referred to as ‘the bladder’) is the organ that collects and stores urine produced by the kidneys. The bladder expands as urine from the kidneys collects before being passed out of the body through the urethra.
The gland which produces the fluid which carries semen. It is located in the male lower urinary tract, under the bladder and around the urethra.
The muscles used to control the exit of urine in the bladder, through the urethra. When either one of the muscles contracts, the urethra is sealed shut.
A surgical procedure in which the surgeon cuts skin and tissues to have direct access to the structures or organs.
Endoscope is A tube-like instrument to examine the inside of the body. Can be flexible or rigid.
It is a procedure in which the doctor looks inside your bladder using an endoscope inserted through the urethra.
An endoscope used for the urinary tract. It is inserted into the urethra and can move through the bladder, up the ureter, and even into the kidney.
It is an endoscope that is inserted into the kidney through a 1cm incision in your flank. It is used to treat kidney stones, or any other conditions inside the kidney.
It is an infection of the urinary tract that persists for long time.
Urinalysis is used to rule out that you have a urinary tract infection, if you do have an infection, urine culture is used to confirm this and to select the best antibiotic its treatment.
These are defects in the urinary tract that occur before birth due to different causes.
A stone is a hard, solid mass that can form in the, bladder, ureter, and kidneys.

The exact cause of urinary stones, yet stones are more common in patients with:

  • Low urine volume
  • high protein Diet
  • Obesity
  • Medical conditions
  • Some medications and calcium vitamin D supplements
  • Family history
Severe pain in flank, loin, groin, or thigh caused by a block the normal flow of urine. Usually this block is caused by a stone, yet it may be caused by a blood clot or external compression from a structure within the posterior abdominal wall.
  • Make sure you drink 2.5 to 3 liters every day, Drink evenly throughout the day
  • Have a balanced and varied diet, Eat lots of vegetables, fibers, and fruits
  • Decrease animal protein and salt intake.
  • Try to eat more low-oxalate foods like eggs, lentils, white rice, peeled apples, grapes, cauliflower, squash, yet Make sure your diet contains a sufficient amount of calcium (about 1,000 milligrams a day). However, be careful with calcium supplements and always ask your doctor advice.
Imaging technique that makes a series of x-ray images of the body.
Generally speaking stones in urinary tract can be passively expulsed through natural opening using some drugs or actively removed using endoscopy, Shock wave lithotripsy, or rarely open surgery
Treatment option to remove kidney or ureteral stones. A ureteroscope is inserted into the urinary tract via the urethra to pull out the stone
Treatment option to remove stones directly from the kidney by placing an endoscope tube through the skin., fragment the stone and/or remove it.
Treatment option to break stones into smaller pieces using high energy sound waves. Stone fragments pass with urine after the procedure. The patient does not need to sleep over at the hospital
Bladder cancer is the growth of abnormal tissue (tumour) in the urinary bladder (referred to as ‘the bladder’). There are several stages of bladder cancer. Your treatment and experience depend on the specific characteristics of the tumour and the expertise of your medical team.
Bladder cancer develops over time and is more common in older people (age 60 and older, tobacco smoking contains many harmful substances and is responsible for almost half of the bladder cancer cases. Another well-known source of risk is occupational exposure to chemicals used in the production of paint, dye, metal and petroleum, although workplace safety guidelines have helped reduce this risk. Infections from certain viruses, bacteria or parasites and chronic urinary tract infections increase risk of developing bladder cancer.
Blood in the urine is the most common symptom when a bladder tumour is present. If you have urinary tract symptoms such as blood in the urine, painful urination or need to urinate more often, a malignant tumour might be suspected, particularly if treatment does not reduce the symptoms.
A procedure in which a small piece of tissue is removed from the body to examine it. This is done to get information for diagnosing, monitoring, and treatment.
The diagnosis relies on tumor biopsy which is the examination of tumor tissues removed from the bladder through a resectoscope(endoscope); in addition to other complementary studies as CT of the abdomen and pelvis.
According to the results of the biopsy your doctor will discuss with you treatment options, Broadly, treatment decision depends upon the degree of penetration of the tumor into the bladder wall; if the tumor is limited to the lining of the bladder, ie didn’t penetrate into the wall, the treatment strategy will rely on removal of all the tumor tissues endoscopicallly, if wasn’t done during the biopsy, yet if the tumor has invaded the wall of the bladder, more aggressive treatment would be offered.
It is an increase in the size of the prostate gland which happens to some extent in all men as they grow older this enlargement may obstruct the flow of urine, a condition which is called benign prostatic obstruction
Studies showed that all men over 80 will have some sort of histological BPH, recent studies confirmed 60% of men over 50 years old will have at least urinary symptoms related to BPH
No relation ever exists between BPH and carcinoma of the prostate, BPH will never progress into cancer.
The most common symptoms will be decrease in the force of urine jet, intermittent urine stream, need to push to evacuate, also increase in the frequency of urination, waking up at night is also a common problem.
Beside the bothersome, sleep disorders and decrease in the quality of life, progression of BPH may lead to recurrent infection, urinary stones, urine retention and may be complicated by renal impairment.
It is used to measure prostate volume. This may be important to confirm the diagnosis of prostate enlargement and to decide which treatment option is best for you.
A protein produced by the prostate which may increase in men with a benign prostatic enlargement, prostatic inflammation, or prostate cancer
Uroflowmetry is a measurement of the speed of the flow of urine. This test is done to see if the prostate obstructs the urine flow
The doctor will take your medical history and do a physical examination, including a digital rectal examination (DRE) of the prostate. During DRE the doctor uses a finger to feel the size, shape, and consistency of the prostate. Your symptoms will be carefully evaluated, blood and urine tests are done, and the speed of your flow of urine is measured during uroflowmetry.
The level of PSA (prostate-specific antigen) in your blood may be tested because BPE and prostate cancer can occur in the same age group. PSA can also be used to estimate your prostate volume and it can be used to estimate the risk of the BPE symptoms getting worse.
Urinalysis is used to rule out that you have a urinary tract infection, which causes similar symptoms. If you do have an infection, urine culture is used to confirm this and to select the best antibiotic treatment for the infection.
The amount of urine left in the bladder after urination is measured to see whether the bladder is able to empty completely. High PVR is a sign that the bladder is not functioning well or that there is a blockage to the urethra. This may increase the risk of urinary tract infections.
Wide range of treatments are present for BPH symptoms, ranging from simple life style modification(watchful waiting), passing by the simple use of some pills(drug treatment), and finally the surgical intervention either using endoscopy, or open surgery.

The urologist will evaluate your condition, the symptoms; will order some initial investigations, according to which he will assess:

  • how much your symptoms interfere with your life
  • the size of your prostate
  • Presence of complication related to prostate enlargement
  • Your age and overall health
  • any other medical condition
The removal of part of the prostate which causes the symptoms (the adenoma). The procedure is done through the urethra without making an incision in your lower abdomen, which is known as minimally invasive treatment.
It is a procedure done using the endoscope and a laser fiber to cut (enucleate) or vaporize the prostate tissue. During the procedure, only a small amount of blood is lost.
Plasma vaporization is a new treatment option for treatment of BPH, it uses the plasma effect of normal saline to vaporize the prostate tissue. Decrease the risk of bleeding in comparison to conventional endoscopy, Rapid weaning of the catheter (24-36 hours), Short hospitalization (1 day), Suitable for large prostate(>100cc)
Stents are used to keep the urethra open and improve the flow of urine. They are mainly recommended for men who are not fit for surgery
In most cases, surgery will not cause erectile dysfunction.